Recently, people over the age of 30 have to face pathologies - varicose veins. The disease is hereditary, it is a consequence of the abuse of bad habits. Varicose veins of the lower extremities - deformation of the walls of blood vessels that move blood to the heart, formation of nodes. The disease leads to complications associated with the formation of blood clots, the risk of their separation. The latter stages can be fatal. When the first symptoms appear, it is recommended to consult a doctor. He will prescribe specific treatment for your diagnosis.
Varicose veins of the lower limbs - mechanism of development
Pathological changes in the veins of the legs develop under the influence of factors that have an internal and external manifestation.
The main reasons for the formation of pathological changes:
- Genetic predisposition. Scientists have shown that one of the fundamental factors in the development of varicose veins is heredity. If your mother, your grandmother has had an illness, you are at risk of people predisposed to pathological processes.
- Congenital vascular valve insufficiency. Pathological abnormalities are associated with congenital weakness of the connective tissue. The walls, the formed structures have low strength and elasticity.
- The gestation period. One of the reasons for the development of the disease is pregnancy. Hormonal changes in the body of a woman lead to the fact that they suffer from pathology 50% more than men. During pregnancy, the blood flow to the lower pelvic organs increases and the pressure on the lower body increases. As a result, the venous walls swell under the onslaught of blood flow.
- The specifics of the workflow. Varicose veins of the lower extremities are formed in people with professions associated with staying upright for a long time. Pathology develops in teachers, hairdressers, dentists. People associated with mobility are not at risk.
- Overweight. With the appearance of excess weight, the load on the lower body increases.
- Insufficient nutrition, lack of raw fruits and vegetables in the diet.
- Presence of oncological diseases.
- Constant stressful situations. The venous walls contain nerve endings that increase the tone. With constant nervous overvoltage, the walls become less elastic.
- Bad habits (alcohol abuse, smoking). Harmful substances, toxins, have a destructive effect on the vascular walls.
- Sports overload, carrying heavy weights.
- Shoes with high heels, tight clothes, contribute to the compression of blood vessels, impaired blood flow.
The listed factors contribute to the disruption of the integrity of the venous walls. Under the pressure of the bloodstream, they are forced to deform. The blood flow is from the bottom up. From the lower limbs to the heart. There are valves in the veins that prevent back flow.
In case of violation of the main function of the valves, the vessels are deformed, thinned, stretched under the pressure of the bloodstream, which becomes chaotic. Nodes are formed - varices, which are visible through the skin, like blue stars.
Varicose veins in the legs, risk factors
In the initial stages of the disease there is weakness, fatigue in the legs. Over time, during the development of the disease, the patient feels pain. The nature of the pain is pulling. Worsens at night, at the end of the working day; weak in the morning, after sleep. These are the first symptoms of pathological changes in the vessels. If you don't start treatment on time, complications are possible.
Diseases of the veins of the lower limbs cause:
- Thrombophlebitis. It manifests itself as inflammation of the vascular walls, leads to high temperature, blockage of the lumen of blood vessels;
- Trophic ulcer. Violation of the integrity of blood vessels, formed at the slightest injury. Pathology is dangerous, it is a breeding ground of bacteria. The place of localization is the lower part of the lower leg, the foot. Heals hard. The skin becomes vulnerable to environmental influences. The main danger is tissue necrosis;
- Phlebothrombosis. Violation of blood flow, through the formation of blood clots that attach themselves to the venous walls, reducing the lumen of the canal;
- Thrombosis. Blood clots as a result of blood clots. It can cause death when a blood clot breaks, moving into the pulmonary artery;
- Bloody knots;
- Thrombophlebitis. Inflammation of the vessel walls caused by the formation of blood clots. It is accompanied by an increase in body temperature.
Varicose veins in the legs can be fatal. When a thrombus is torn, the lumen of a vital artery that supplies the heart and lungs is blocked, causing oxygen starvation, lack of nutrients. It also spreads to the brain.
Classification of varicose veins of the legs
Depending on the severity of the symptoms of the pathology, there are six stages of the development of the disease. The modern classification includes the following stages:
- Zero. It is characterized by a feeling of evening heaviness in the lower limbs. There is no clinical manifestation.
- First. It manifests itself in the form of subcutaneous telangiectasias, small spider veins. Feels like cramps at night.
- Second. It consists of the above symptoms plus visible areas of subcutaneous vasodilation.
- Third. It is accompanied by the presence of ankle edema. The next morning after sleep they don't go away, they stay for the whole day. During the day, there is excruciating pain in the area of the veins.
- Fourth. Expressed by the presence of dry skin. The varix swells outward. Brown spots are noted - skin pigmentation in the area of rupture of the vascular walls.
- Fifth. Formation of the stage of trophic disturbance. The skin becomes vulnerable. Blood flow is impaired, the risk of blood clots increases.
- Sixth. A trophic ulcer forms. The skin is broken, blood clots are formed, accompanied by inflammation of the venous walls. The risk of clot separation increases.
Varicose veins are an independent disease. It doesn't go away by itself. When the first symptoms are found, it is recommended to start therapy, remember, it is easier to treat the ailment in the initial stage of development.
The clinical picture of the manifestation of the pathology is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- The appearance of pain in the lower limbs, a feeling of heaviness, heat along the direction of the vessel.
- Feeling of heaviness in the legs towards the end of the day.
- After a long stay on the legs, swelling forms.
- Convulsions are felt at night.
- The walls of the veins expand, they can be seen through the skin.
- The skin on the lower leg turns brown, open wounds (trophic ulcers) form.
- On palpation, the affected veins are palpable, they seem tortuous. In a horizontal position, the venous network disappears and appears in an upright position.
- Constant heaviness, burning sensation in the lower limbs. In the initial stages, it takes place in the morning, after rest. With the development of the disease, edema is added.
- Increased body temperature, feeling of weakness.
- Compaction, formation of cones in the area of vascular clusters.
- Bloody discharge from trophic ulcers.
- Disruption of skin nutrition.
- Painful blood clots.
If the above symptoms occur, it is advisable to consult a doctor.
Varicose veins - diagnosis
The doctor prescribes a diagnostic method based on the clinical picture of the course of the disease. The main method of determining the state of blood vessels is duplex ultrasound. The procedure takes 25 minutes. It gives an idea of the condition of the deep and superficial veins. It is prescribed for prevention and to determine the method of therapy.
If necessary, diagnostics are integrated:
- Computed tomographic phlebography. The basis of the method is the introduction of a contrast agent into the vessels, which contributes to the manifestation of a clear picture of the state of the veins on the monitor screen. It is prescribed for an uncertain clinical picture of varicose veins.
- Magnetic resonance venography. The principle for determining the diagnosis is based on the use of a tomograph. It does not involve the introduction of a contrast agent. Displays the test result on the monitor. Allows you to get a clear picture of the state of blood vessels, determine the location of the presence of blood clots.
- Segmental Doppler. Determines the patency, the possibility of narrowing of the arteries. Provides results within five minutes.
Therapy for varicose veins of the lower limbs
After determining the state of the vessels, making a diagnosis, the doctor prescribes therapy. It depends on the stage of development of the pathology. Assigned by:
- Conservative therapy. Based on the use of blood thinning drugs, venotonics, anti-inflammatory drugs, physiotherapy exercises.
- Sclerotherapy. The method is based on the introduction of a drug into the affected vein. Blood flow passes through healthy veins, bypassing the glued ones.
- Compression shirt. It is prescribed for treatment, in combination with other methods of therapy.
- Surgery - excision of the affected vein.
- Laser coagulation. Laser treatment.
The method of therapy depends on the stage of development of the disease.
Leg vein dilation, prevention
According to the conclusions of phlebologists, the disease is easier to prevent than to cure. The main methods of preventing varicose veins:
- correct feeding;
- giving up bad habits;
- use of physical activity (visit to the fitness center);
- walks in the open air;
- contrast shower;
- drink at least two liters of fluids per day;
- orthopedic chair for sedentary work;
- comfortable clothes and shoes.
Observing the simplest rules, you can prevent the development of the disease.