Varicose veins - causes, treatment of varicose veins of the lower extremities

Varicose veins of the lower limbs - persistent and irreversible expansion, lengthening of the veins. The disease develops due to gross changes in the walls of blood vessels, dysfunction of the valvular apparatus, genetic defects.

varicose veins in the legs

Causes of the disease

Varicose veins can be congenital, primary, secondary. The pathological process can cover superficial, perforating, deep veins.

The main reasons for the development of varicose veins of the lower extremities:

  • hereditary predisposition;
  • prolonged static loads, physical inactivity;
  • violation of hormonal levels, prolonged use of drugs containing estrogen;
  • frequent leg injuries;
  • smoking, abuse of coffee, alcoholic beverages;
  • the habit of sitting cross-legged;
  • a tendency to constipation;
  • weightlifting;
  • age-related changes in blood vessels.

In women, varicose veins occur more often than in men. With an increase in the concentration of the hormone progesterone during pregnancy, in some days of the menstrual cycle, the extensibility of the venous walls increases. The risk of developing the disease increases among those who like to wear high heels.

How do varicose veins manifest themselves?

In the initial stage, there are no noticeable symptoms of the disease. But the presence of bulging veins is a reason to consult a doctor, even if all else fails. Timely treatment will help avoid the development of thrombophlebitis and other complications.

The first signs of varicose veins:

  • at the end of the day, the legs are swollen;
  • there is a feeling of heaviness, heat, swelling;
  • aching, throbbing pain in the calves;
  • worried about itchy skin on the legs;
  • night cramps;
  • spider veins appear on the skin.

The appearance of protruding veins and nodes indicates a severe course of varicose veins. In case of skin malnutrition, areas of the skin with a painted surface appear. In the center is a whitish area, which indicates the development of white skin atrophy. Then trophic ulcers are formed.

If the color of the skin changes, itchy nodules, blisters appear, the swelling of the legs does not go away overnight - this indicates chronic venous insufficiency.

Diagnostic methods

If signs of varicose veins appear, it is necessary to visit a phlebologist. The doctor can make the initial diagnosis after an external examination and medical history.

Diagnostic methods:

  1. Double-sided ultrasonic scanning. . . The specialist examines the vessels on both legs, assesses the diameter, compressibility, reveals a violation of blood flow and reverse blood flow. The study is performed in a standing or sitting position with lowered legs.
  2. Methods for evaluating the function of the valve, the length of reverse blood flow. Compression tests, stress tests, gait imitation, Paran reception.
  3. Additional methods. . . Echo Doppler, plethysmography, CT, MRI, thermography.

Pharmacological and compressive treatment of varicose veins of the lower limbs

When treating varicose veins with drugs, the main goal is to eliminate the manifestations of venous insufficiency, to reduce the severity of side effects after surgery.

Drug groups:

  • phleboprotectors or venotonics;
  • external agents based on heparin;
  • vitamin complexes.

Compression therapy is necessary for any method of treating varicose veins, to prevent the development of the disease. Special elastic bandages of various degrees of elongation are used. Bandages with maximum extensibility are used after operations to securely fix dressings and stop bleeding. For therapeutic and prophylactic purposes, bandages of medium and short elasticity are suitable.

You should always bandage from the toe joints, grabbing the heel. The pressure from the bandage should gradually release from the ankle to the hip. With varicose veins, bandages need to be worn all day, remove only before bedtime.

Alternative to bandages: compression knee-highs, stockings, tights. The products are made of cotton, natural or synthetic rubber.

Surgery for varicose veins

Surgical intervention helps to significantly improve the quality of life with advanced varicose veins, reduce the risk of complications and recurrence of the pathology. The task is to remove the dilated veins, eliminate pathological wastewater.


  1. Thermal obliteration. . . A minimally invasive method in which the veins from the inside are welded with a laser, a radio frequency sensor.
  2. Traditional surgery. . . The dilated saphenous veins are removed.
  3. sclerotherapy. . . At the initial stage, avoid full-fledged surgery. A special drug is injected into the enlarged vein, which glues the vessel from the inside.

Diet for varicose veins

With varicose veins, you need to eat more fruits and vegetables. The diet should contain fish, foods rich in fiber, vitamins C, B and routines. Vitamin E, found in olive oil, strengthens the walls of blood vessels. Products with vitamin P are useful: green tea, nuts, rose hips. Foods to improve the elasticity of the veins - sprouted grains of rye and wheat, beans and peas, green onions and garlic.

List of prohibited foods:

  • salty, spicy, smoked food;
  • animal fats;
  • refined carbohydrates;
  • alcohol;
  • strong tea, coffee;
  • meat in a minimal amount.

Methods of prevention

Varicose veins can be avoided by following a healthy and active lifestyle.

How to keep lower limb veins healthy:

  • do not get carried away by hot baths, saunas, prolonged exposure to the sun - all this reduces the tone of the veins, blood stagnates in the lower limbs;
  • exercise regularly, but the load should be moderate;
  • get rid of excess weight - each additional kilogram increases the load on blood vessels;
  • do not wear tight jeans, socks with tight elastic;
  • when working sitting or standing, periodically change the position of the body;
  • do not sit cross-legged;
  • in the morning and before bedtime, perform 3-5 rotational movements with the feet to improve blood circulation;
  • take fresh foot baths in the evening;
  • observe the drinking regime - drink at least 1. 5 liters of water per day;
  • get rid of bad habits;
  • walk more barefoot in the summer;
  • women choose comfortable shoes with a heel height of 3-5cm.

In addition to thrombophlebitis, ulcers that do not heal form in severe varicose veins. Due to the damaged valves, blood enters the superficial venous system and the pressure rises. The blood flow slows down, the oxygen supply to the tissues is interrupted.