Symptoms and treatment of varicose veins

varicose veins

Vascular problems are a fairly common occurrence in modern society more and more often. Nowadays, varicose veins of the extremities are diagnosed not only in the elderly. The disease affects young people and even children.

What are the symptoms of varicose veins on the legs, arms and other parts of the body? The first signs of the disease are very important to know. Since the effectiveness of all subsequent treatments depends on a timely diagnosis.

The symptoms of varicose veins on the legs and other parts of the body will be the subject of this article. We will also talk about the causes of diseases and preventive measures that are necessary to prevent the development of the pathological process. And, of course, we pay attention to all sorts of methods of treatment for varicose veins in the legs, arms or other organs.

It is believed that the disease affects only the limbs of the human body. However, it isn't. Recently, doctors are increasingly diagnosing pelvic varicose veins in women. Also, the pathology is found in the veins of the esophagus and other internal organs. How can such anomalies be identified and treated? Let's find out.

Definition of disturbance

Before knowing what a disease is, it is necessary to obtain general information about the structure of the human circulatory system.

As you know, the blood in our body circulates through the vessels. Arteries are the vessels through which blood flows from the heart to various organs and tissues. Veins are also vessels, but blood flows through them in the opposite direction, from the organs and tissues to the heart.

In order for this to proceed in the right direction, there are one-way valves within each vein. They provide the necessary blood circulation in the right direction. What else do you get with such valves? Blood does not accumulate in one place, but circulates and enriches the body.

what varicose veins look like

Varicose veins are characterized by damage to the intravascular valves or even their complete absence. As a result, the general blood flow is disturbed, it accumulates in the place where the pathology is detected. This causes the veins to swell and dilate abnormally.

There are different types of veins in our body: superficial (located immediately under the skin), deep (hidden deep in the muscle tissue) and communicative (connecting the first two types).

The most commonly diagnosed varicose veins are superficial veins, for example on the legs in the knee, calf or thigh area. However, the disease can also affect vessels located in the pelvic region or rectum.

Lower limbs

First, let's pay attention to the varicose veins of the lower limbs. Externally, the disease manifests itself in the form of purple, blue or bluish-green veins under the skin, which curl and swell outward. Similar manifestations can be seen in the photo below.

Causes of varicose veins in the legs

The main cause of the onset of the disease, as mentioned above, is the pathological processes that occur in the blood vessels themselves. What could trigger these changes?

The main provocateurs of the disease include a hereditary predisposition to deformation of the veins. In addition, excessive loads on the legs can have a negative effect on the vessels, for example, when a person, due to his professional use, constantly stands or walks. It is not surprising that teachers, athletes and hairdressers have a predisposition to this disease.

Other negative factors that affect vascular elasticity are overweight, hormonal changes, cardiovascular disease (eg, thrombosis).

Do not forget about bad habits, which have a negative effect not only on the veins, but on the whole body as a whole. It is clear that smoking and alcohol abuse can provoke the development of a pathological process in the blood vessels.

Pregnancy can often provoke the development of a disorder, which is a great stress and burden for a woman's whole body. In addition, carrying a baby affects the hormonal background of the expectant mother, which can also cause pathological processes in the circulatory system. However, it is worth remembering that, as such, pregnancy is not the cause of varicose veins. Carrying a fetus can be the reason or one of the reasons for the manifestation of the disease.

It is no secret that most often the disease is diagnosed in women and this is not always associated with the period of pregnancy or hormonal changes. Wearing uncomfortable shoes (too tight or with very wide heels) is another major reason for the development of varicose veins in the lower limbs.

Various vein injuries can be an important factor in the development of abnormal expansion of blood vessels. This includes trauma or inflammation in the vessels, as well as the formation of blood clots.

How to detect a disease at an early stage to start timely and high-quality treatment? Let's find out.

Symptom details

The first sign of a problem is pain in the legs, particularly where the valve has been broken. It is also very important to pay attention to discomfort in the lower limbs, as if the leg is heavy. This sensation is an important sign of vascular deformation.

The abnormal protrusion of the veins is another sign of the development of the disease. Dark purple streaks appear under the skin, curl and swell.

The skin in the affected vessel area becomes dry, may peel and darken, itchy and itchy. At the site of the development of the pathological process, edema is formed, the skin becomes swollen or swollen.

If you do not pay attention to these manifestations in time, the symptoms can worsen. A person begins to be bothered by cramps, open ulcers form in the area of ​​the varicose process, which can bleed and cause pain. Wounds are a possibility of infection, so you should see a doctor as soon as possible so as not to complicate an already difficult situation.

Identification of the disorder

how to identify a disorder

What will the hospital say? Most likely, the specialist will refer you to the necessary tests to diagnose the ailment and rule out other probable diseases.

The most important diagnostic measure is the physical examination of the patient. The patient will be asked to stand up, sit down and shake their legs. It is on the basis of an external examination that the diagnosis will be made.

After that, the doctor may recommend that you undergo a Doppler ultrasound, on the basis of which it will be possible to examine the blood flow and, if available, detect a thrombus.

An angiogram may also be prescribed by a specialist. This study involves the introduction of a certain dye into the vein, thanks to which the structure of the vessels and their pathological changes will be clearly visible on X-ray.

General principles of restoration

Is it possible to cure varicose veins at home? Yes, especially when it comes to the early stages of the disease.

The first thing your doctor will recommend is to change your weight and nutrition program. That is, if the patient has extra pounds, then he should go on a special diet to normalize his body weight. If the patient's weight is normal, he will still have to monitor his diet, avoiding fatty and salty foods, which can negatively affect blood vessels, as well as cause obesity.

Also, a therapeutic diet can mean avoiding strong coffee (and sometimes tea as well), smoked meats, and canned food. Alcoholic beverages are also one hundred percent contraindications for people suffering from varicose veins. It is very important to eat a lot of fruits and vegetables (including fresh juices), cereals and soy. And of course, don't forget the greens. Parsley, dill and salad are what will help you cope with any ailments!

treatment recommendations

In addition, the attending physician may prescribe you to wear compression underwear, for example stockings or even pantyhose.

Many men can be complex about such an unusual treatment for varicose veins in the legs. However, don't dwell on this problem. Compression underwear is a fairly common method of treating vascular pathologies of the lower extremities. Its judicious use will not only save the patient from unpleasant symptoms and painful sensations, but will also help prevent the progression of the disease. In some cases, this garment will be recommended to the patient for continuous use throughout life. Most often, compression stockings are prescribed to pregnant women to alleviate their condition during gestation, when the body cannot be helped in any other way.

The essence of this medical garment is that they tighten the leg in the ankle area, gradually weakening the effect on the skin of the leg. This stimulates proper blood circulation to the heart.

Now on sale you can find various compression socks and tights, which differ not only in size, but also in the degree of compression (pressure applied to the leg).

Another way to cure varicose veins is the appointment of special gymnastics for the legs. The specialist recommends some exercises for the patient to help normalize blood flow to the extremities.

Let's move on to drugs

Special ointments and oral medications can be prescribed to help in the fight against the disease, the purpose of which is to thin the blood and improve its circulation. In addition, such drugs can strengthen the walls of blood vessels, relieve inflammation and relieve pain.

Most often, doctors prescribe phlebotonics (or venotonic drugs). They improve lymphatic drainage, strengthen the walls of blood vessels, give them elasticity and reduce capillary permeability.

In addition, the patient may be prescribed antiplatelet agents that dissolve clots and improve blood flow by inhibiting platelet aggregation and suppressing their adhesion.

During an exacerbation of the disease, it is very important to take medications that would prevent blood clotting. For this purpose, the attending physician may prescribe drugs based on heparin or its derivatives.

According to experts, it is best to use non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

And, of course, we must not forget the ointments. Local preparations are presented in huge quantities on the pharmaceutical market.

More radical treatments

radical treatments

The methods described above do not always achieve the desired result.

In these cases, the doctor may recommend non-invasive treatment options. What do they include? Let's talk about each method.

Laser treatment

One of the gentler methods of treating varicose veins is the use of a laser on the surface of the epidermis. A small flash of light that illuminates the walls of the vein contributes to the development of the process of sclerosis, as a result of which the affected vein disappears, as if it had been removed.

Intravenous laser coagulation is another procedure for the treatment of varicose veins. However, it involves making a small incision in a location just above or just below the affected vein. A catheter is then inserted into the vessel and an ultrasound is sent. The action of the laser lasts about a minute, after which the patient feels heat in the area of ​​the affected vein which, after a certain time, disappears becoming part of the connective tissue.

Since the patient is given local anesthesia prior to the procedure, the patient feels absolutely nothing. After manipulation, a feeling of heaviness in the lower limbs, bruises is possible. However, this does not affect the recovery period in any way. The next day, the patient can go to work and carry out his normal activities.

Radio frequencies

Together with the laser, the ablation method can also be used, which is performed in almost the same way as the laser coagulation described above. The only difference is the equipment used. Instead of a laser, the specialist uses radiofrequency energy, which enters the affected vessel through the catheter, heats it until the walls of the vein collapse and close. Subsequently, the blood is directed to another channel - to a healthy vessel.


It involves the complete or partial removal of the affected vessel. Varicose vein surgery is only prescribed as a last resort, when other treatment methods have failed. To combat varicose veins, surgeons use various surgical techniques. Some of them will be listed below:

  • Crossctomy.
  • Venoextraction.
  • Miniflebectomy.
  • Endoscopy.

The essence of these manipulations is as follows: small incisions are made on the leg in several places (most often below and above the affected area), after which a thin flexible thread is inserted into the vessel, which removes the veinsick. These operations are carried out quite often and almost always pass without complications, however, they carry some risks and inconveniences.

For example, such surgeries are performed under general or spinal anesthesia. The use of anesthesia can lead to allergic reactions to the drugs used, opening of bleeding and breathing problems.

Among other negative factors that can arise after the operation, it is necessary to mention the possibility of infection, bruising and swelling in the affected area, nerve damage, irritation of the veins or the formation of blood clots inside the vessels. Also, it should not be forgotten that carrying out surgery does not guarantee the absence of recurrence in the future.

The postoperative period does not last long. Within a day or two, the patient can begin his daily activities. He will be advised to wear compression garments for a week.


This is one of the methods of treating varicose veins, which should also be paid attention to, and it can be performed directly in the doctor's office without hospitalization. In the process of manipulation, a special chemical solution is injected into the diseased vein, which acts as an irritant, as a result of which the vein thickens and closes. Subsequently, blood circulation is carried out through healthy vessels.

This procedure is useful when a small vein in the knee is affected. Sclerotherapy is usually combined with other methods of treating varicose veins.

Various preparations are used as a chemical solution. After manipulation, the patient will need to wear compression bandages impregnated with a sclerosing agent. The time of use will be determined individually by the attending physician.

The side effects of such injections include the following negative manifestations:

  • The appearance of blood clots in other vessels of the lower limbs.
  • Headache.
  • Lower back pain.
  • Temporary visual impairment.
  • Fainting.
  • Irritation of the skin around the injection site.

However, most patients tolerate sclerotherapy well. If contraindications are taken into account and the manipulation is done correctly, a positive result is guaranteed in the treatment of varicose veins.

First aid kit for people

Is it possible to cure the disease with alternative medicine? In some cases yes, especially when it comes to the primary manifestations of the disease and if the treatment with grandmother's methods will be carried out with the permission of the attending physician.

So, which components should you stock up on to start effective treatment of the disease? First of all, let's take apple cider vinegar. Mix two teaspoons of product in a glass of water, add a little honey and drink in the morning on an empty stomach.

Apple cider vinegar can also be used for topical application in the form of rubbing, after having dissolved it in water (ratio from 1 to 10). Rub the affected area with gentle movements at night - in the morning, the unpleasant symptoms should subside.

Chestnut tincture is often used against varicose veins. To do this, collect beautiful, undamaged fruits and grind them through a meat grinder. Then fifty grams of raw materials are poured into a half-liter bottle of vodka and placed in a dark place for two weeks. Subsequently, the tincture is filtered and taken internally, thirty to forty drops per tablespoon of water half an hour before meals, three or four times a day. The course of such treatment is one month. Then they take a two-week break and, if necessary, repeat again.

This tincture can also be used to rub the affected area at night.

An old method of getting rid of varicose veins is to use leeches. It is up to the patient and their doctor to decide how much hirudotherapy is needed in each individual case.

So, we paid enough attention to varicose veins of the lower limbs. Now let's talk about other types of ailments.

Small pelvic vessels

varicose veins of the pelvic organs

This pathology is very easy to confuse with gynecological disorders in women.

Varicose veins in the pelvic area can be considered as hormonal disorders, pathology of the genitourinary system or even as ordinary sciatica. However, it is very important to identify the disease as early as possible. Varicose veins of the pelvis in women can cause malfunctions of the ovaries and the entire circulatory system.

What are the causes of this intimate disorder?

Causers of disease

The main reasons for the development of the disease include severe pregnancy, regular high-intensity physical activity, a sedentary lifestyle, some gynecological diseases, prolonged use of hormonal drugs, dissatisfaction with sex life and so on. Most often, varicose veins of the small pelvis occur against the background of an increased amount of estrogen. And, of course, don't forget that overweight and bad habits do not improve, but only aggravate the situation.

How to identify such a disease?

This is an important symptom

First of all, pelvic varicose veins manifest themselves in pains of varying intensity, which worsen after or during intercourse, physical effort or prolonged stay in the same position. Also, the disease is characterized by bleeding, frequent urination, accompanied by painful sensations, swelling, redness of the vulva or perineum, burning or itching in this area.

A few words about treatment

how to treat pelvic varicose veins

How to get rid of pathological varicose veins of the small pelvis? First of all, you should contact a specialist. Can advise wearing compression underwear and special gymnastics (these are well-known exercises performed in the supine position - "birch", "scissors" and "bicycle").

Among the most popular methods, decoctions of dandelion or chaga root, as well as chestnut tinctures, have proved to be the most effective.

And what can you say about another type of varicose veins - pathology of the gastrointestinal tract?

Digestive organs

Esophageal varicose veins are not considered a very common disorder, most often the disease is a concomitant symptom of a more serious disease.

Why does such a pathology arise and how to define it?

Briefly about the causes and symptoms

The main reasons for the expansion of the veins of the esophagus are congestion in the vessels of the liver, caused by thrombosis or cirrhosis. This pathology is most often diagnosed in men, as well as in patients with severe chronic diseases, especially in the over 50s. How to identify a disorder?

Esophageal varicose veins are very often asymptomatic and manifest themselves in rare attacks of heartburn, abdominal heaviness, difficulty in swallowing, belching. Sometimes, patients may show external signs of a pathological process - protrusion of blood vessels and veins on the anterior wall of the abdomen (abdominal cavity).

Most often, a disorder is diagnosed during a seizure, that is, when the venous wall ruptures and bleeding occurs. In most cases, the bleeding is accompanied by vomiting (with bloody mixture), decreased blood pressure, general weakness, increased heart rate, bloody (or impurity) discharge in the stool.

If such symptoms appear, it is imperative to perform a blood test and x-ray (with the introduction of special contrast solutions).

Treatment of esophageal pathology

Most often, this disease is treated in intensive care. In conditions of bleeding, the initial task of doctors is to eliminate it. For this, astringent preparations, colloidal solutions, blood repair agents can be used. In some cases, doctors recommend transfusion of blood or its main components (or blood substitutes).

If the above methods do not work, specialists may find it appropriate to perform an operation or sclerotherapy of the esophagus. After recovery, the patient will have to follow a fairly strict diet for life. Proper nutrition will include fractional meals, avoiding fatty, smoked, salty and fried foods, avoiding hot or too cold foods, and so on.


It is known that the disease is easier to prevent than to cure. What measures should be taken to prevent the occurrence of a pathological process in the veins?

First of all: a healthy lifestyle! Reasonable diet, moderate physical activity, elimination of bad habits, wearing comfortable shoes and clothes - all this will not only help improve health, but also avoid many serious ailments. Good health to you!