Problems with the cardiovascular system have serious consequences for the human body. In the high-risk group are the vessels of the lower extremities. Feet are constantly exposed to adverse factors, ranging from gravity to improperly fitted shoes. The consequence of this is varicose veins in the legs, the treatment of which most often ends with surgery.
Features and causes of the development of the disease
Varicose veins of the lower limbs are formed due to valvular insufficiency. It can be congenital or acquired. When the valves are not working properly, the body tries to increase the pressure in the limbs so that the blood is pushed upwards. Because of this, the veins in the legs stretch, their elasticity decreases and they lose their shape. Thus, a vascular pattern forms on the surface of the skin. This is the first sign that indicates that a person has started varicose veins of the lower limbs.
VBNK without treatment leads to a huge number of complications, the most serious of which can be cardiac thrombosis and death. About 60% of cases of varicose veins of the legs lead to disability. Therefore, it is impossible to let the disease run its course. Having noticed its first symptoms, you should immediately contact a phlebologist. The causes of varicose veins on the legs are varied. Its development can cause:
- increase in the level of progesterone in the female body;
- congenital problems with valves and blood vessels;
- leg injuries;
- sedentary lifestyle;
- excessive physical activity;
- chronic joint diseases;
- wearing shoes and crushing clothing;
- long-term use of COCs;
- problems with the endocrine system;
- neoplasm by playing with the lower limbs or peritoneum;
- general increase in blood pressure;
- too much fat consumed;
- thrombosis, accompanied by inflammatory processes in the venous walls.
As you can see, relatively harmless habits can become the cause of varicose veins on the legs. Leg veins often lose their elasticity during pregnancy. This happens for two reasons. First, women no longer control their weight, which causes the growth of fatty tissue and an increase in pressure on the vessels. Secondly, sudden spikes in hormones lead to a change in the density of the vein walls. In 45% of cases, varicose veins of the lower extremities in pregnant women go away on their own after childbirth. The rest of the fair sex will have to undergo treatment if the sores on the legs have not healed in the first 3 months.
In men, varicose veins of the lower extremities develop under the influence of hard physical work. Therefore, the risk group includes people who spend more than 80% of the working day standing, i. e. builders, cooks, etc. Regardless of gender, varicose veins in the legs can develop in professional athletes. During training, the pressure in the lower body increases many times, so it is necessary to wear specific underwear to create compression.
The symptoms of varicose veins of the lower limbs are the same for both sexes. In the early stages, the disease is practically not noticeable. Some patients may notice a protruding vessel, someone notes constant heaviness in the legs. The disease does not manifest itself until it has spread strong enough. Then the patient develops the following signs of varicose veins:
- pain while walking;
- dull pain when resting (disappears if you put your feet on a hill);
- discoloration of the skin of the legs associated with the fact that the vessels begin to protrude upon palpation and swelling;
- feeling of heaviness in the limbs in the afternoon;
- changes in the structure of blood vessels, thickening.
Before treating a disorder, a doctor must determine what caused it. Patients who have suffered from severe physical stress or an improper lifestyle can completely remove varicose veins from the feet and legs. Another thing is people with a genetic predisposition to this disease. After the doctor begins to treat varicose veins, the manifestations of the disease will disappear. But after a while, such patients may again have relapses, so it is necessary to treat varicose veins in the legs after determining the factor that provoked its development.
Distinctive features of deep venous varicose veins
Deep vessels are also susceptible to this venous disease. The first sign of their defeat is a feeling of heaviness in the calves. They are literally full of being in a sitting position. Calves return to their normal size after sleep or prolonged supine rest. Symptoms of deep venous varicose veins are slightly different from the milder form of the disease. The patient is observed:
- severe pain in the calf muscles;
- dryness and discoloration of some skin segments;
- varicose veins on the limbs have the shape of bunches of grapes and are visible to the naked eye;
- the stars appear on the lower limbs;
- small wounds appear that do not heal;
- there is a burning sensation.
Internal varicose veins on the legs are dangerous because they affect the structure of the muscle structure. They deform and cease to perform their functions. The bones of the lower limbs are also negatively affected. Trophic and difficult-to-heal ulcers appear on the skin. Some begin to smear them with various healing balms, which cannot be done with varicose veins. As a rule, ointments contain hormones that accelerate regeneration in healthy people. But for those who have symptoms of internal varicose veins, they will only hurt. The inflammatory process will begin to intensify, which can lead to the development of gangrene and, in advanced cases, to cause sepsis and death. It is very dangerous when a blood clot forms. It can break off and cause cardiac arrest.
Stages of the disease
Different medical schools distinguish a different number of stages of development of venous disease of the lower extremities. But if you summarize all the information, there are 4 of them:
- Zero. Swelling develops, the veins in the legs swell slightly, the pain is more painful than acute. The patient needs preventive massage, stabilization of the work and rest regime, moderate physical activity. Balms and firming creams have a good effect.
- First. The first veins and knots of the spider appear. It is necessary to start the treatment of varicose veins of the legs in a hospital using special devices. Also in this phase the first cramps and the burning sensation appear.
- Second. The lower limbs begin to swell a lot. The vessels on the legs hurt, the number of stars increases. It is becoming increasingly difficult for patients to bear the pain. Ointments and other means of cooling and constricting the vessels of the legs stop helping.
- Third. The skin becomes very dry, cracks appear. Pigmentation changes. In the lower legs, the skin becomes very dark, while the vascular pattern is clearly visible in the upper part. If a patient has deep venous varicose veins, ulcers are formed. The pain becomes unbearable, there is a feeling of numbness in the legs.
Ideally, varicose veins in the legs should be treated by a phlebologist from the first stage. But people confuse them with the usual overwork, they do not pay attention to such obvious symptoms. Later after the third stage of varicose veins lead to loss of limbs and general damage to the body. It will be difficult for both the patient and the doctor to treat varicose veins on the legs in a neglected form.
Can varicose veins be treated? Yes, but for this it is necessary to undergo a full diagnosis. Varicose veins of the lower extremities in the last stages are determined by a simple visual examination. The veins in the legs will be swollen and clearly visible. But here the post-thrombotic disease of the veins of the lower extremities and a genetic predisposition to varicose veins of the lower extremities are not detected by a simple examination.
The problem is also that patients don't know how varicose veins hurt their legs, so they can attribute the symptoms to other diseases. To accurately identify vascular disease of the lower extremities, it will be necessary to undergo a number of diagnostic procedures:
- Pass samples to Delba;
- flowmetry to determine the rate of filling of veins and blood flow;
- vein scan;
- phlebomanometry, necessary to determine the pressure inside the vein;
- phleboscintigraphy to study the condition of the veins and lymph nodes.
Patients who experienced symptoms of varicose veins of the lower extremities are carried out from this list only 2-3 studies. Methods are determined after analyzing the patient's condition. Treatment of varicose veins on the legs begins only after receiving the results of all examinations. Without data collection it will not be possible to organize the right therapy. Therefore, in addition to information about the patient, the phlebologist must analyze information about relatives, because problems with blood vessels in 70% of cases occur on a genetic basis.
Methods for treating the disease
Both deep venous varicose veins, the initial stage of vascular lesions of the lower limbs and varicose veins below the knee are treated in much the same way. Many patients think about how to remove varicose veins on the legs when it reaches the last stage. So the doctor has no choice but to cure varicose veins through surgery. But this method is used when the disease has almost reached its peak and has begun to pose a direct threat to the patient's life. In other cases, milder therapy is used to remove the protruding vessel. The following methods of treating varicose veins are distinguished:
Each method allows both to treat varicose veins of the legs and to stabilize the patient's condition. Convulsions with varicose veins and other manifestations of the disease should disappear after starting one of the types of therapy. If the state of the vessels of the lower extremities remains the same, it is necessary to change the method of therapy.
Many patients do not understand why the legs hurt with varicose veins and how to deal with varicose veins on the legs, if it has already appeared. It all depends on the degree of varicose veins and how carefully the patient follows the doctor's recommendations. Varicose veins in the legs are treated with the use of ointments. It should be said right away that if you have thought about how to get rid of varicose veins permanently with the help of creams, you will be disappointed.
Ointments and gels do not even reach the piercing veins. They slightly irritate the blood vessels, which relieves inflammation and prevents blood stagnation. When a patient has varicose veins of the lower limbs, he is treated with hormonal drugs that have an anti-inflammatory effect on the vessel walls of the lower limbs. Hydrotherapy will help get rid of varicose veins on the legs. The patient can spend it at home or in a sanatorium.
Stockings, compression underwear, special stockings help reduce pain in the legs with varicose veins. At the same time, the protruding vessel cannot be completely cured with their help. Venous blood will press on him, causing the varicose veins in the legs to spread further. To prevent this from happening, it is recommended to contact a massage therapist.
Taking medication is another way to demonstrate how you can deal with varicose veins on your legs. Medicines are prescribed in the form of capsules, tablets, injections. The most common in the treatment of varicose veins are the following types of drugs:
- anticoagulants. They are needed to prevent blood clots from forming.
- Anti-inflammatory. Essential for reducing swelling and pain.
- Phlebotonics. They are needed to improve vascular tone and accelerate blood flow.
If you have varicose veins, what you shouldn't do is panic and try to find medicine on your own. It won't help stop varicose veins, but it will greatly damage the liver and kidneys. The affected vein in the leg is not suitable for injections. As a last resort, you can use the shoulder, but it is better to inject into the buttocks.
There are 3 surgical methods that allow both to get rid of varicose veins and to prevent their recurrence. The first is remembered when asked how to cure varicose veins with minimal trauma. This is the laser treatment. The directional radiation beam activates a thermal reaction with hemoglobin, which leads to the closure of the damaged vessel. The procedure is suitable for overly sensitive patients with a low pain threshold.
If you are looking for a way to stop the spread of the disease but don't want to invest a lot of money in the process, you can resort to surgery. It will leave slight scars on the surface of the legs. During the operation, doctors will simply remove the damaged vessels. The third way is to inject blocking drugs directly into the vein. It does little to damage the skin and, after injecting the solution, patients can go home immediately. Its only drawback is that it is not suitable for everyone. Allergy sufferers and patients with sensitive immune systems will not be able to use blocking drugs.